Alternative fuel car

Posted October 9th, 2011 by Cuevas Dudea

These days, the watchword is bio-fuels derived from organic material. The two most common biofuels are bioethanol and biodiesel. Bioethanol produced from starch or sugar crops in the same process that gives homemade liquor. Yeast ferments sugar to ethanol which is distilled to remove water. Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils or animal fats.

The United States has been to increase the production of ethanol from corn, but can not replace the imported oil. World corn prices have already increased the grain is diverted from the food chain in the fuel tank. Corn is difficult to grow a crop, requiring high inputs of fertilizers and pesticides. According to some estimates pessimistic, it requires about as much energy to grow corn and convert it to ethanol is ethanol produced by the end.

On the other hand, there are a lot of excitement about the technologies for producing ethanol from cellulose. Cellulose, the main structural components of plants, consisting of long chains of sugars. An effective process to convert cellulose into sugars would enable its production of ethanol from straw, crop waste, wood chips, and perhaps even scrap cardboard and paper.

is another alternative source of energy for locomotion. Hydrogen can be burned or converted into electricity by fuel cells. Prototype hydrogen cars exist, but paradoxically, the hydrogen is used to feed normally derived from natural gas. Hydrogen can be made by splitting water, but this requires a significant input of energy. Storage and transportation of hydrogen are also problems to solve, if hydrogen cars are not to be practical.

Battery-electric cars continue to improve. The biggest challenge in making them commercially viable to develop a battery to power the vehicle over long distances, can be recharged, and is not expensive. A popular hybrid car around the restrictions on drums, combining gasoline and electric power. Furthermore, during braking, the electric motor acts as a generator of hybrid cars to recharge the batteries.

Hydrogen and fuel cells are basically a means of storing energy from other sources, so that it can be transferred to the vehicle. Other methods of energy storage are possible. For example, energy can be pumped into the air in a pressurized tank without a car. After the expansion of the air moves piston engine. Emissions from cars are clean, but, of course, actual emissions will depend on how the energy used to compress the air was produced. Air Car Prototype exists, but research continues in order to market the idea. The biggest challenge is to create a car that can achieve a variety of useful run on a single tank of compressed air.

 

Black Gold: Fuel from crude oil

Posted October 9th, 2011 by Cuevas Dudea

Crude oil when pumped by an oil source consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon-based molecules of hydrogen and carbon atoms. To produce products of value for this mixture are hydrocarbons of various sizes separated by a process called distillation.

This involves heating the oil to over 1000 degrees Fahrenheit (540 degrees) in the bottom of the column fractionation tower 260 feet (80 meters) with the groups of collection trays at different heights. Hydrocarbon vapor cools as it moves into the column and condenses the trays. Higher hydrocarbons condense on the trays in the bottom of the column, and condensed hydrocarbons smaller in the higher councils.

Methane, ethane, propane and butane (which one, two, three and four carbon atoms, respectively) was collected from the top of the column. What is bottled and sold. Because these dangerous gases are odorless, the stinky sulfur compounds added for security reasons.

Liquids condensing small hills, gasoline, kerosene, gas oil (used for diesel and heating oil) and lubricating oil. Very large hydrocarbons that do not boil off at low pressure is redistilled separated wax, tar, and so on.

Other methods of treatment depend on customer demand. For example, to increase the amount of gasoline from crude oil, kids can be connected together to form the longest, largest and hydrocarbons can be decomposed into smaller ones. Hydrocarbons are also materials for plastics, herbicides and pesticides, detergents, dyes, cosmetics and textiles such as acrylic and polyester.

Gasoline, when you buy it, is a complex mixture of 200 items added to improve performance and help you burn more pure gas. For example, hydrocarbons, is added to increase the octane of fuel. This reduces the “pounding” that occurs when the fuel ignites spontaneously and not squeezing the spark plug.

Tetraethyl lead was added to reduce knocking in the past. It was banned because of health and was replaced by methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Now ethanol to replace MTBE because of health concerns in the past.

Ethanol is the fuel for automobiles from corn or other starch or sugar. It is like the moon, maceration and fermentation of cereals, followed by distillation. Many engines can run on a blend of up to 10 percent ethanol in gasoline, and “flexible fuel vehicles” can run on blends of up to 85 percent ethanol.

Does it matter what fuel you use in your car, for engine performance and gas mileage is concerned?

Gasoline service providers to share pipelines, and various dealers fill their tankers at the same terminals. The fuel itself is the same. The only difference between brands is mixed with additives to gasoline, when it is pumped into tankers on the way the local gas station.

Since 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency authorized the detergent gasoline and set performance standards in order to detergents Control Engine deposits. Verification of deposits to improve fuel economy and reduce pollutants in engine exhaust.

Under the Clean Air Act and its amendments, the gasoline composition has undergone many changes. The first was the elimination of leaded gasoline. Average levels of lead in blood in the United States has fallen dramatically over the 15 years that the use of leaded gasoline has fallen from its peak to almost zero, reports the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Later came the introduction of reformulated gasoline with more oxygen to increase fuel. The higher oxygen content through the use of oxygenates. Reformulated gasoline also has lower levels of benzene, a known carcinogen, and other contaminants. Reformulation of fuel is determined by federal and local mandates, instead of the brand.

Reformulation of the fuel is not the only factor responsible for the reduction of pollutants. A study of a decade of exhaust emissions, published in the journal Environmental Science and Technology, found that the reduction in the three main pollutants, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons were mainly the result of improving the systems on board control of the vehicle emissions. The researchers found similar improvements in emissions in the cities that the reformulated fuel mandate and no.

Since the composition of different brands of fuel varies little, many companies have tried to attract consumers by advertising their green credentials. For the classification of the Sierra Club environmental oil companies, see Pick Your Poison.

Barbara is a professional librarian. He has a Master of Science in Information Science at Florida State University. “Barbara10Broek wrote 38 articles. You can read more articles by this author Subscribe to the author’s diet, or Subscribe to our site.

Basic Plumbing Tools

Posted October 9th, 2011 by Cuevas Dudea

As every homeowner knows the household plumbing repairs are an option. Clogged drains, leaky faucets and toilets are connected will happen: There is no way to avoid it. Call a plumber can be expensive and if you happen to have a pipe burst in the middle of the night, it may be hours (or days) before a plumber arrives.

In many cases, could solve the problem before the plumber to return your call if you have the right tools for the job. Like any do-it-yourself-ER knows that there is nothing worse than trying to make a repair with the wrong tools. However, having the right tools to basic sanitation is as easy as following this list.

Plumbing Tools Basic List:

* Some homes are only in sealed plastic tube. If your home is only a plastic plumbing pipes you do not need a flashlight, brushes, brush, or copper tubing cutter.

Remember remember safety first and to add safety equipment such as gloves, eye protection and first aid kit, and never cut into the wall saw, without knowing what is behind it. Always cut a small hole in the drywall saw and check for electrical wiring and pipes before major surgery. Make sure you have the correct ventilation area before you use any glue tube.

These are the basic tools you need for most plumbing repairs, but later on you might want to add more tools and a good do-it-yourself plumbing manual.

Why we see only one side of the Moon

Posted October 9th, 2011 by Cuevas Dudea

We see only one side of the moon because the moon is tidally locked to Earth. Although this sounds like we’re talking about ocean tides, the term used to describe the effect of the Earth’s gravitational field of the moon. The most descriptive term used to describe this phenomenon is captured rotation.

Captured rotation is when gravity is on one side of an astronomical body always be someone else. Many people think it is because the astronomical bodies (the Moon) does not rotate on its axis, but it is not. A celestial body that is rotating caught as much time to turn on its axis as it rotates around its partner. This is the synchronous rotation, which causes one side of the moon facing Earth. Though it may seem strange, it’s normal, and most moons in our solar system is in synchronous rotation with their parent planets.

A simple experiment you can do to show that the effect is a friend at your side, while facing a wall. Then get your friend to “orbit” around but still facing the wall opposite him. You will realize that if he is still staring at the wall, in orbit, there are cases in which the back, front and sides are facing you. This is what would happen if the moon does not rotate on its axis, sometimes you see on each side of her.

Now he has his friend while he’s orbit in front of you. You will notice at some point, to keep up, you should contact. This “round” is the same as the moon rotates on its axis to keep out the Earth.

Another good way to visualize this is to see this video from NASA. This video is of their series of brain injections of education.

Seychelles Islands

Posted October 9th, 2011 by Cuevas Dudea

I have sailed to many places in the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean, and each had its own special charm and beauty, but by far, is the most beautiful place I have ever sailed the islands of the Seychelles in the Indian Ocean. If you like the palm trees with hammocks stretched between them, the crystal clear waters and pristine beaches, this is the place to visit.

When my ship was anchored off the main island of Mah in the first place, I was looking for was on the beach.

Seychelles is also useful to collect foreign currency for its beauty. I have fall in your home with me:

The hotel I was in the summer on the beach (of course), and had about every water activity you could wish for: scuba diving, para-sailing, windsurfing, swimming, or simply laze on the beach. For those of us who like to fish, boat rentals abound. I also visited another hotel nearby where they were to have a Hawaiian. I had a great time even though I was pulled up on a small stage and forced to dance the hula. It was not a pretty sight, and I’m glad no one has any pictures of him. They laughed too busy ….

For hikers, there is the National Park and World Heritage Vallee de Mai.

If you like the accelerating nightlife then jump over the nut Amour nightclub. It is named in honor of their own palm nuts Coco de Mer, Islanders called a “nut love.”

All of the islanders I met spoke some English (French and English are official languages), so it was easy for me to travel around the island and talk to people. The islanders are friendly people who reminded me of my friends in southern Louisiana more than someone from abroad. So if you go wandering around the island, as I did, be prepared to stop and talk a little.

My only regret is that I was only four days to spend in the Seychelles. The next time I go it will be an extended vacation where I’m going to be a lot of time to explore. If you plan to vacation on the tropical island of Seychelles and is well worth considering.

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